Our Research

The TOBergmannLab (AG Neurostimulation) is part of the Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research (LIR). We investigate the function of neuronal oscillations in cognition (in particularly attention and memory), trying to understand their role in defining brain states, organizing information processing, and gating synaptic plasticity in the wake and sleeping human brain, as well as the neuronal mechanisms mediating their top-down control. To answer our research questions, we follow a multimodal approach, combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation techniques (TMS, TDCS, TACS) with electrophysiological recordings (EEG, MEG) and neuroimaging (fMRI). The methodological focus of the group lies on the simultaneous application of these techniques (including concurrent EEG-fMRI, TMS-fMRI, TMS-EEG, TCS-MEG, TCS-TMS) as well as brain state dependent brain stimulation approaches, such as real-time EEG-triggered TMS.

Our Methods

Non-Invasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation


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Multimodal Neuroimaging

EEG, MEG, PSG, (f)MRI, Concurrent EEG-fMRI

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Combining Brain Stimulation with Neuroimaging


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Brain-State Dependent Brain Stimulation

Closed-Loop, Real-Time EEG-triggered TMS

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Software Development

MAGIC Toolbox, BEST Toolbox

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Ten Most Important Publications

Bergmann TO, Mölle M, Schmidt MA, Lindner C, Marshall L, Born J, Siebner HR (2012). EEG-Guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Reveals Rapid Shifts in Motor Cortical Excitability during the Human Sleep Slow Oscillation. Journal of Neuroscience, 32:243-253

Jensen O, Gips B, Bergmann TO*, Bonnefond* M (2014) Temporal coding organized by coupled alpha and gamma oscillations prioritize visual processing. Trends in Neurosciences, 37(7):357-369. [*contributed equally]

Marshall TR, O’Shea J, Jensen O, Bergmann TO (2015). Frontal eye fields control attentional modulation of alpha and gamma oscillations in contralateral occipito-parietal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(4): 1638-1647.

Staresina BP*, Bergmann TO*, Bonefond M, van der Meij R, Jensen O, Deuker L, Elger CE, Axmacher N & Fell, J. (2015). Hierarchical nesting of slow oscillations, spindles and ripples in the human hippocampus during sleep. Nature Neuroscience, 18(11):1679-86. [*contributed equally]

Herring JD, Thut G, Jensen O, Bergmann TO (2015). Attention modulates TMS-locked alpha oscillations in the visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(43):14435-14447.

Bergmann TO, Karabanov AN, Hartwigsen G, Thielscher A, Siebner HR (2016). Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: current approaches and future perspectives. NeuroImage, 140:4-192.

Herring JD, Marshall TR, Esterer S, Jensen O, Bergmann TO (2019). Low-frequency alternating current stimulation rhythmically suppresses gamma-band oscillations and impairs perceptual performance. NeuroImage, 184: 440-449.

Conde V, Tomasevic L, Akopian I, Stanek K, Saturnino GB, Thielscher A, Bergmann TO, Siebner HR (2019). The non-transcranial TMS-evoked potential is an inherent source of ambiguity in TMS-EEG studies. NeuroImage, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.10.052. [*contributed equally]

Bergmann TO, Lieb A, Zrenner C, Ziemann U (2019). Pulsed facilitation of corticospinal excitability by the sensorimotor mu-alpha rhythm. Journal of Neuroscience. 2019;39(50):10034-10043.

Bergmann TO, Hartwigsen G (2020). Inferring Causality from Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Cognitive Neuroscience. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 2020:1-29.