Our Research

The TOBergmannLab (AG Neurostimulation) is part of the Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research (LIR). We investigate the function of neuronal oscillations in cognition (in particularly attention and memory), trying to understand their role in defining brain states, organizing information processing, and gating synaptic plasticity in the wake and sleeping human brain, as well as the neuronal mechanisms mediating their top-down control. To answer our research questions, we follow a multimodal approach, combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation techniques (TMS, TDCS, TACS) with electrophysiological recordings (EEG, MEG) and neuroimaging (fMRI). The methodological focus of the group lies on the simultaneous application of these techniques (including concurrent EEG-fMRI, TMS-fMRI, TMS-EEG, TCS-MEG, TCS-TMS) as well as brain state dependent brain stimulation approaches, such as real-time EEG-triggered TMS.

Our Methods

Non-Invasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation


read more

Multimodal Neuroimaging

EEG, MEG, PSG, (f)MRI, Concurrent EEG-fMRI

read more

Combining Brain Stimulation with Neuroimaging


read more

Brain-State Dependent Brain Stimulation

Closed-Loop, Real-Time EEG-triggered TMS

read more

Software Development

MAGIC Toolbox, BEST Toolbox

read more

Ten Most Important Publications

Conde V, Tomasevic L, Akopian I, Stanek K, Saturnino GB, Thielscher A, Bergmann TO, Siebner HR (2019). The non-transcranial TMS-evoked potential is an inherent source of ambiguity in TMS-EEG studies. NeuroImage, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.10.052. [*contributed equally]

Herring JD, Marshall TR, Esterer S, Jensen O, Bergmann TO (2019). Low-frequency alternating current stimulation rhythmically suppresses gamma-band oscillations and impairs perceptual performance. NeuroImage, 184: 440-449.

Bergmann TO, Karabanov AN, Hartwigsen G, Thielscher A, Siebner HR (2016). Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: current approaches and future perspectives. NeuroImage, 140:4-192.

Herring JD, Thut G, Jensen O, Bergmann TO (2015). Attention modulates TMS-locked alpha oscillations in the visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(43):14435-14447.

Staresina BP*, Bergmann TO*, Bonefond M, van der Meij R, Jensen O, Deuker L, Elger CE, Axmacher N & Fell, J. (2015). Hierarchical nesting of slow oscillations, spindles and ripples in the human hippocampus during sleep. Nature Neuroscience, 18(11):1679-86. [*contributed equally]

Marshall TR, O’Shea J, Jensen O, Bergmann TO (2015). Frontal eye fields control attentional modulation of alpha and gamma oscillations in contralateral occipito-parietal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(4): 1638-1647.

Marshall TR, Bergmann TO & Jensen O (2015). Fronto-parietal structural connectivity mediates the top-down control of neuronal synchronization associated with selective attention. PLoS Biology, 13:e1002272.

Jensen O, Gips B, Bergmann TO*, Bonnefond* M (2014) Temporal coding organized by coupled alpha and gamma oscillations prioritize visual processing. Trends in Neurosciences, 37(7):357-369. [*contributed equally]

Bergmann TO, Mölle M, Schmidt MA, Lindner C, Marshall L, Born J, Siebner HR (2012). EEG-Guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Reveals Rapid Shifts in Motor Cortical Excitability during the Human Sleep Slow Oscillation. Journal of Neuroscience, 32:243-253

Bergmann TO, Mölle M, Diedrichs J, Born J, Siebner HR (2012). Sleep spindle-related reactivation of categoryspecific cortical regions after learning face-scene associations. NeuroImage, 59:2733–2742.